नहीं हुआ कोयला बिजली का वित्तपोषण, 2021 में मिली रिन्यूबल एनेर्जी को तरजीह

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साल 2021 में कोयले और रिन्यूबल स्त्रोतों से जुड़ी ऊर्जा परियोजनाओं की एक एनालिसिस से पता चलता है कि साल 2021 में कोयला बिजली परियोजनाओं के लिए कोई नया वित्तपोषण नहीं किया गया था। इतना ही नहीं, 2021 में नई ऊर्जा परियोजनाओं के लिए कुल वित्तपोषण, वित्‍त वर्ष 2017 के स्तर की तुलना में 60% कम था।

क्‍लाइमेट ट्रेंड्स और सेंटर फॉर फाइनेंशियल अकाउंटेबल (सीएफए) द्वारा लिखित कोल वर्सेज रीन्‍यूएबल फाइनेंशियल एनालीसिस को आईआईटी मद्रास द्वारा के सहयोग से आयोजित सीएफए की ऐनुअल एनर्जी फाइनेंस कांफ्रेस में आज जारी किया गया और इससे पता चलता है कि L&Tफाइनेंस ने साल 2021 में रिन्यूबल एनेर्जी के लिये सबसे बड़े वित्‍तपोषणकर्ता के तौर पर भारतीय स्‍टेट बैंक (एसबीआई) की जगह हासिल कर ली है।

रिपोर्ट की मुख्‍य बातों पर नज़र डालें तो पता चलता है कि:

· पहली बार, 2021 में चिह्नित किये गये परियोजना वित्त ऋण के मूल्य का 100% हिस्‍सा अक्षय ऊर्जा से सम्‍बन्धित परियोजनाओं के खाते में आया । यह वर्ष 2020 के मुकाबले खासी ज्‍यादा रहा, जब कुल कर्ज का 74 प्रतिशत हिस्‍सा अक्षय ऊर्जा के नाम रहा था।

· नयी ऊर्जा परियोजनाओं पर कुल वित्‍तपोषण में वर्ष 2017 के मुकाबले साल 2021 में 60 प्रतिशत की गिरावट आयी। इसके अलावा, जब मुद्रास्फीति को ध्यान में रखा जाता है, तो 2021 में नई ऊर्जा परियोजनाओं के लिए उधार दी गई राशि का वास्तविक मूल्य 2020 के स्तर की तुलना में कमी भी दर्शाता है।

· वर्ष 2021 में कोयले से जुड़ी परियोजनाओं के लिये मंजूर किये गये कर्ज को पिछली रिपोर्ट में शामिल किया गया था, लिहाजा उसे यहां सम्मिलित नहीं किया गया है। अगर इसे शामिल किया जाए तो इसका मतलब होगा कि कुल मूल्‍य का 20 प्रतिशत हिस्‍सा कोयले से चलने वाले बिजलीघरों और 80 फीसद हिस्‍सा अक्षय ऊर्जा परियोजनाओं के नाम रहा।

· यह दिलचस्‍प है कि इस साल सितम्‍बर के मध्‍य में केन्‍द्रीय ऊर्जा मंत्रालय ने पीएफसी और आरईसी को एनेर्जी ट्रांज़िशन कार्यों के लिये विकास वित्‍तीय संस्‍थान (डीएफआई) का दर्जा देने की पेशकश की है। अगर इस प्रस्‍ताव को मान लिया गया तो सरकारी स्‍वामित्‍व वाले दोनों वित्‍तीय संस्‍थानों को देश में ऊर्जा रूपांतरण के लिये नोडल एजेंसी बनाया जा सकता है।
कुछ अनुमानों के मुताबिक भारत को वर्ष 2070 तक नेट जीरो का लक्ष्‍य हासिल करने के लिये 10 ट्रिलियन डॉलर की जरूरत पड़ेगी और जरूरी वित्‍तपोषण हासिल करने में नोडल एजेंसी बहुत बड़ी भूमिका निभायेगी।

· भारतीय रिजर्व बैंक ने भी जलवायु जोखिम एवं सतत वित्‍त पर आधारित एक विमर्श पत्र साझा किया है, जिसमें इस सुझाव को बहुत मजबूती से सामने रखा गया है कि बैंक क्‍लाइमेट रिलेटेड फिनेंशियल डिसक्‍लोजर्स (टीसीएफडी) से सम्‍बन्धित टास्‍क फोर्स की बात मानें। साथ ही यह रिपोर्ट इस बात के लिये सुझाव पेश करती है कि निजी बैंक किस तरह से जलवायु परिवर्तन जोखिम से निपट सकते हैं और हरित वित्‍त के पैमाने को कैसे बढ़ा सकते हैं। भू-राजनीति के प्रभावों और पिछले कुछ वर्षों से बाजार टूटने के बावजूद इनमें से कुछ कदम अक्षय ऊर्जा के लिये जरूरी धन में वृद्धि कर सकते हैं, जिससे उन परियोजनाओं को जरूरी रफ्तार से आगे बढ़ाया जा सके।

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