कैबिनेट ने दी NDC को मंजूरी, PM ‘पंचामृत’ जलवायु लक्ष्यों में किया परिवर्तित

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भारत अब अपने सकल घरेलू उत्पाद की उत्सर्जन तीव्रता को 2030 तक 45 प्रतिशत तक कम करने के लिए प्रतिबद्ध

प्रधानमंत्री मोदी की अध्यक्षता में केन्द्रीय मंत्रिमंडल ने संयुक्त राष्ट्र जलवायु परिवर्तन फ्रेमवर्क सम्मलेन (यूएनएफसीसीसी) को सूचना दिए जाने के लिए भारत के राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर निर्धारित योगदान या अपडेटेड नैशनली डिटर्मिण्ड कोंट्रीब्यूशन्स (एनडीसी) को मंजूरी दे दी है। अपडेटेड एनडीसी, पेरिस समझौते के तहत आपसी सहमति के अनुरूप जलवायु परिवर्तन के खतरे का मुकाबले करने के लिए वैश्विक कार्रवाई को मजबूत करने की दिशा में भारत के योगदान में वृद्धि करने का प्रयास करता है। इस तरह के प्रयास, भारत की उत्सर्जन-वृद्धि को कम करने के रास्ते पर आगे बढ़ने में भी मदद करेंगे। यह देश के हितों को संरक्षित करेगा और यूएनएफसीसीसी के सिद्धांतों व प्रावधानों के आधार पर भविष्य की विकास आवश्यकताओं की रक्षा करेगा।

यूनाइटेड किंगडम के ग्लासगो में आयोजित संयुक्त राष्ट्र जलवायु परिवर्तन फ्रेमवर्क सम्मलेन (यूएनएफसीसीसी) के पार्टियों के सम्मेलन (सीओपी26) के 26वें सत्र में भारत ने दुनिया के समक्ष पांच अमृततत्व (पंचामृत) पेश किए तथा जलवायु कार्रवाई को तेज करने का आग्रह किया। भारत के मौजूदा एनडीसी का यह अद्यतन स्वरूप, सीओपी 26 में घोषित ‘पंचामृत’ को उन्नत जलवायु लक्ष्यों में परिवर्तित कर देता है। यह ताज़ा स्वरूप, भारत के 2070 तक नेट-जीरो के दीर्घकालिक लक्ष्य को प्राप्त करने की दिशा में भी एक महत्वपूर्ण कदम सिद्ध होगा।

इससे पहले, भारत ने 2 अक्टूबर, 2015 को यूएनएफसीसीसी को अपना राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर निर्धारित योगदान (एनडीसी) प्रस्तुत किया था। 2015 एनडीसी में आठ लक्ष्य शामिल थे; इनमें से तीन, 2030 तक के लिए संख्या आधारित लक्ष्य हैं, जैसे गैर-जीवाश्म स्रोतों से विद्युत उत्पादन की संचयी स्थापित क्षमता को बढ़ाकर 40 प्रतिशत तक पहुंचाना; 2005 के स्तर की तुलना में सकल घरेलू उत्पाद की उत्सर्जन तीव्रता को 33 से 35 प्रतिशत तक कम करना और अतिरिक्त वन व वृक्षों के आवरण के माध्यम से 2.5 से 3 बिलियन टन कार्बन डाईआक्साइड के अतिरिक्त कार्बन सिंक का निर्माण करना। ताज़ा एनडीसी के अनुसार, भारत अब 2030 तक 2005 के स्तर से अपने सकल घरेलू उत्पाद की उत्सर्जन तीव्रता को 45 प्रतिशत तक कम करने और 2030 तक गैर-जीवाश्म ईंधन-आधारित ऊर्जा संसाधनों से लगभग 50 प्रतिशत संचयी विद्युत शक्ति की स्थापित क्षमता प्राप्त करने के लिए प्रतिबद्ध है। आज की यह स्वीकृति, गरीबों और कमजोर लोगों को जलवायु परिवर्तन के प्रतिकूल प्रभावों से बचाने के लिए टिकाऊ जीवनशैली और जलवायु न्याय के माननीय प्रधानमंत्री के दृष्टिकोण को भी आगे बढ़ाती है।

भारत सरकार का मानना है कि “ताज़ा एनडीसी हमारी राष्ट्रीय परिस्थितियों और सामान्य लेकिन अलग-अलग जिम्मेदारियों एवं संबंधित क्षमताओं (सीबीडीआर-आरसी) के सिद्धांत पर ध्यान से विचार करने के बाद तैयार किया गया है। भारत का अद्यतन एनडीसी सतत विकास लक्ष्यों को हासिल करने के लिए प्रयास करने के साथ– साथ कम कार्बन उत्सर्जन के मार्ग पर अग्रसर होने की दिशा में काम करने की हमारी प्रतिबद्धता की पुष्टि भी करता है।”
इस तथ्य को रेखांकित करते हुए कि जलवायु परिवर्तन में जीवनशैली की बड़ी भूमिका है, भारत के माननीय प्रधानमंत्री ने कॉप26 में वैश्विक समुदाय के समक्ष एक ‘एक शब्द वाले आंदोलन’ का प्रस्ताव रखा। वो एक शब्द है लाइफ…एल, आई, एफ, ई यानी लाइफस्टाइल फॉर एनवायरनमेंट । लाइफ का दृष्टिकोण एक ऐसी जीवनशैली अपनाना है जो हमारे धरती के अनुरूप हो और इसे नुकसान न पहुंचाए। भारत का अद्यतन एनडीसी जलवायु परिवर्तन से निपटने के इस नागरिक केन्द्रित दृष्टिकोण को भी दर्शाता है।

राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर अद्यतन निर्धारित योगदान (एनडीसी) 2021-2030 की अवधि के लिए भारत के स्वच्छ ऊर्जा की ओर परिवर्तन की रूपरेखा का भी प्रतिनिधित्व करता है। आधुनिकतम ढांचा, सरकार की अनेक अन्य पहलों के साथ, जिसमें कर रियायतें और प्रोत्साहन शामिल हैं, जैसे कि नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा को अपनाने के लिए उत्पादन से जुड़ी प्रोत्साहन योजना, भारत की विनिर्माण क्षमताओं और निर्यात को बढ़ाने का अवसर प्रदान करेगी। इससे नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा, स्वच्छ ऊर्जा उद्योग- ऑटोमोटिव में, कम उत्सर्जन वाले उत्पादों जैसे इलेक्ट्रिक वाहनों और सुपर-कुशल उपकरणों का निर्माण व हरित हाइड्रोजन जैसी नवीन तकनीकों आदि जैसी ग्रीन जॉब्स में समग्र वृद्धि होगी। भारत की अद्यतन एनडीसी को संबंधित मंत्रालयों/विभागों के कार्यक्रमों व योजनाओं के माध्यम से और राज्यों व केंद्र शासित प्रदेशों के उचित समर्थन के साथ 2021-2030 की अवधि में लागू किया जाएगा।

सरकार ने अनुकूलन और शमन दोनों पर भारत के कार्यों को बढ़ाने के लिए कई योजनाएं व कार्यक्रम शुरू किए हैं। जल, कृषि, वन, ऊर्जा और उद्यम, निरंतर गतिशीलता और आवास, कचरा प्रबंधन, चक्रीय अर्थव्यवस्था और संसाधन दक्षता आदि सहित कई क्षेत्रों में इन योजनाओं व कार्यक्रमों के तहत उचित उपाय किए जा रहे हैं। उपरोक्त उपायों के परिणामस्वरूप, भारत क्रमशः ग्रीन हाउस गैसों के उत्सर्जन से आर्थिक विकास को अलग कर रहा है। अकेले भारतीय रेलवे द्वारा 2030 तक शुद्ध शून्य लक्ष्य से उत्सर्जन में सालाना 60 मिलियन टन की कमी आएगी। इसी तरह, भारत का विशाल एलईडी बल्ब अभियान सालाना 40 मिलियन टन उत्सर्जन को कम कर रहा है।

भारत की जलवायु संबंधी कार्रवाइयों को अब तक बड़े पैमाने पर घरेलू संसाधनों से वित्तपोषित किया गया है। हालांकि, नए और अतिरिक्त वित्तीय संसाधन उपलब्ध कराने के साथ-साथ वैश्विक जलवायु परिवर्तन चुनौती से निपटने के लिए प्रौद्योगिकी का हस्तांतरण यूएनएफसीसीसी और पेरिस समझौते के तहत विकसित देशों की प्रतिबद्धताओं व जिम्मेदारियों में से एक है। भारत को ऐसे अंतरराष्ट्रीय वित्तीय संसाधनों और तकनीकी सहायता से अपने उचित हिस्से की भी आवश्यकता होगी। भारत का एनडीसी इसे किसी क्षेत्र विशिष्ट मिटिगेशन दायित्व या कार्रवाई के लिए बाध्य नहीं करता है। भारत का लक्ष्य समग्र उत्सर्जन तीव्रता को कम करना और समय के साथ अपनी अर्थव्यवस्था की ऊर्जा दक्षता में सुधार करना है और साथ ही साथ अर्थव्यवस्था के कमजोर क्षेत्रों और हमारे समाज के खंडों की रक्षा करना है।

इस घटनाक्रम पर अपनी प्रतिक्रिया देते हुए, आरआर रश्मि, विशिष्ट फेलो, टेरी, कहते हैं, “भारत द्वारा अपने एनडीसी को अपडेट करने का निर्णय पीएम की ग्लासगो घोषणाओं के अनुरूप है। यह महत्वाकांक्षा को बढ़ाता है और फिर भी सतत विकास को बहस के केंद्र में रखता है। यह जलवायु परिवर्तन की समस्या के प्रभावी और न्यायपूर्ण समाधान के रूप में जीवन जीने के एक स्थायी तरीके के मूल्य पर जोर देता है। इसने यह स्पष्ट करते हुए कि 2030 तक 50% ऊर्जा को गैर-जीवाश्म ईंधन आधारित बिजली उत्पादन के रूप में गिना जाना है, एक स्थायी संदेह को भी दूर कर दिया है।”
आगे, आरती खोसला, डायरेक्टर क्लाइमेट ट्रेंड्स कहती हैं, “ग्लासगो में जो घोषणा की गई थी उसका केवल एक हिस्सा अब भारत के एनडीसी में निहित है। आज के 40 प्रतिशत गैर-जीवाश्म ईंधन-आधारित लक्ष्यों की तुलना में, 2030 तक गैर-जीवाश्म ईंधन-आधारित लक्ष्यों की 50 प्रतिशत स्थापित क्षमता रखने का लक्ष्य, यह दर्शाता है कि यात्रा की दिशा अच्छी है मगर गति तेज हो सकती थी। एनडीसी में 500GW गैर-जीवाश्म-आधारित (और 450GW नवीकरणीय-आधारित ऊर्जा) का लक्ष्य भी शामिल नहीं है, जिसे अक्सर जलवायु लक्ष्यों पर देश की वास्तविक महत्वाकांक्षा के रूप में भी चर्चा की जाती है। अब ऐसी आशा ही कर सकते हैं कि लंबी अवधि की रणनीति प्रस्तुत करने में अधिक महत्वाकांक्षा निहित हो।”

इसी क्रम में, बालासुब्रमण्यम विश्वनाथन, नीति सलाहकार, इंटरनेशनल इंस्टीट्यूट फॉर ससटेनेबल डेव्लपमेंट, कहते हैं, “भारत को अपने अपडेटेड एनडीसी के माध्यम से आधिकारिक तौर पर अपनी जलवायु प्रतिबद्धताओं की पुष्टि करते हुए देखना बहुत अच्छा है। आगामी सीओपी और अगले साल भारत में जी20 शिखर सम्मेलन के साथ, ये कार्रवाइयां भारत की वार्ता शक्ति को मजबूत कर सकती हैं, विशेष रूप से वैश्विक उत्तर से जलवायु वित्त के आसपास।”

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  34. یکی از بهترین فونت های انگلبسی سبک کلایک هستش که توی طراحی های پوستر و نوشته های روی عکس بسیار زیباتر میشه ما تو سایت
    abasvp.ir هزاران فونت فارسی , انگلیسی رو برای شما گذاشتیم که بتونید بدون
    پرداخت هزینه جدا دانلود
    کنید و تو طراحی استفاده کنید و البته ما همواره جدیترین فونت ها هم
    هر هفته آپلود میکنیم.

    فونت های کلاسیک
    این سبک فونت های انگلیسی رو که تو یه دسته بندی جدا
    برای شما قرار دادیم که بسیار راحت میتونید تو نرم افزرا گرافیکی که دارید کار
    یکید لود کنید یا تو خود ویندوز
    نصب کنید این سری فونت ها رو و متن خودتون طراحی کنید.

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  37. با وجود پیشرفت های جدی که در مطالعات و
    درمان مشکلات جنسی از اواخر قرن بیستم
    صورت گرفته است، مشکلات در
    این حوزه همچنان به میزان زیادی پنهان باقی
    مانده و طرفین درگیر به ندرت یا با تاخیر به
    متخصص سکس تراپ مراجعه مینمایند.

    این در حالی است که اختلال در کارکرد جنسی
    مساله ای شایع بوده و ۴۳% زنان و ۳۹% مردان گزارش میدهند که برای برهه ای از زندگی
    حداقل یکی از انواع اختلالات
    جنسی را تجربه کرده اند و این آمار با بالا رفتن سن، افزایش می­یابد.

    اختلال جنسی به اختلال در توانایی پاسخ دهی جنسی یا
    اختلال در تجربه کردن لذت جنسی اطلاق میشود که ممکن است در هر مرحله
    از چرخه ­ی جنسی فرد ( تمایل جنسی،
    تهییج یا برانگیختگی جنسی و ارضای جنسی ) تجربه شود.
    اختلالات جنسی ممکن است دائمی باشد، یعنی از
    اولین تجربیات جنسی فرد اتفاق افتاده
    باشد؛ و یا اینکه موقعیتی باشد، یعنی فقط در انواع خاصی از موقعیت ها و یا در شرایط بخصوصی روی دهد.
    عوامل متعددی در شکل گیری یک اختلال جنسی میتواند موثر باشد، از جمله عوامل جسمانی، روان شناختی، ناآگاهی های جنسی، عوامل آسیب زای فردی،
    همزمانی با اختلالات روان پزشکی، عوامل استرس زا، مشکلات ارتباطی زوجین و عوامل فرهنگی-مذهبی.
    ارزیابی اولیه توسط سکس تراپیست، عوامل دخیل
    در اختلال جنسی را مشخص می کند.

  38. Howdy, I do believe your blog could possibly be having
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  39. Asking questions are actually fastidious thing if you are not understanding anything entirely, but this piece of writing gives nice understanding even.

  40. با بالا رفتن سن والدین، جسمشان در برابر شرایط، بیماریها، محیط و فضا آسیب
    پذیر میشود. این زمانی است که باید از آنها مراقبت
    شود تا زندگی شاد و سلامتی را داشته باشند.

    با افزایش سن،‌کارهای روزمره دشوارتر میشود.
    توانایی زندگی در خانه باعث احساس راحتی و استقلال میشود.
    خدمات پرستاری در خانه همچنین میتواند به بیماران کمک کند تا سطح اعتماد به
    نفس خودشان را حفظ و یا افزایش بدهند.
    زندگی در یک خانه سالمندان یا تسهیلات زندگی
    باعث میشوند تا افراد سالمند
    احساس شکست، درماندگی،‌افسردگی و یا
    حتی تلخی کنند..

    با توجه به افزایش جمعیت سالخوردگان
    در کشور مراقبت از سالمندان در منزل نیاز
    جدید جامعه است. مراقبت از سالمند در صف گرفتن مجوز به عنوان یک رشته دانشگاهی
    جدید است. نگهداری از سالمند
    یکی از مشغولیت های ذهنی افرادی است که والدین سالخورده دارند.
    سالمندان نیاز های خاص خود را دارند که شامل : عاطفی ،
    معیشتی و … می باشد. تمایل سالمندان و فرزندانشان فراهم کردن نیازهای آنان در منزل است.
    مراقبت سالمندان یک شغل نیست بلکه عشق است

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